Chiropractic History: Final Exam
By Joseph Keating Jr., PhDAt the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic we offer a twice-yearly course in chiropractic history. The primary text for the course is Chiropractic: History & Evolution of a New Profession (St. Louis: Mosby, 1992) by Walter Wardwell,PhD. What follows is a sample from the last of three tests administered at the completion of the course. An answer key is provided at the end of the test. Good luck, and have fun!
DIRECTIONS: choose the best answer: Each correct multiple-choice answer is worth 2 points. A = 90-100; B = 80-89; C = 70-79; D = 60-69; F < 60
1. Nerve-tracing was invented by Oakley Smith,DC, as part of naprapathy, and was used by B.J. Palmer as a substitute for x-ray until the neurocalometer was introduced.
2. D.D. Palmer coined the term "subluxation" and was the first person to manipulate the spine in order to relieve disease.
3. This author of the Neurodynamics of the Vertebral Subluxation served briefly as president of the LACC; who was s/he?
4. Old Dad Chiro's final theory of chiropractic rejected the idea that nerves were pinched in the intervertebral foraminae, arguing instead that subluxations altered the tension of nerves, causing them to become too tense or too slack, and thereby changing their vibrational frequency.
5. Herman S. Schwartz,DC, a longtime faculty member at the Chiropractic Institute of New York, is best remembered for his work in mental health and his editing of the 1973 volume of collected papers known as Mental Health and Chiropractic.
6. According to B.J. Palmer,DC,PhC, education constipates the mind.
7. The Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE) is best considered:
MATCH COLUMN B TO COLUMN A (use items in Column B only once)
11. Among the last four American states to license chiropractors (in 1974) was:
12. Which of the following sequences is correct:
13. The attorney who represented chiropractors in the Wilk et al. case was:
14. Although Nebraska lowered its educational requirements for the licensing of chiropractors in 1923 from 27 months to 18 months of training, no new chiropractic licenses were granted in Nebraska from 1929 to 1950, owing to the 1927 passage of basic science legislation.
15. Who is W. Heath Quigley,DC,MS?
16. He was a student of D.D. Palmer, an inventor of adjusting instruments, and the mentor of Charles A. Cale; who was he?
17. The founder of Basic technique was:
18. According to Wardwell (1992, p. 5), chiropractors' primary defense against charges of quackery was the claim that "it works."
19. The early 1970s are considered a time of major change for the chiropractic profession, owing to:
20. The largest single funder of chiropractic research was established by NCA leaders in 1944 as the Chiropractic Research Foundation, and is known today as the Foundation for Chiropractic Education & Research (FCER).
21. Who was the NCA official who helped to merge several schools to form the nonprofit LACC in 1947?
22. The 1975 NINCDS conference is remembered as:
23. B.J. Palmer,DC,PhC called him the "Anti-Christ" of chiropractic; who was he?
24. What effect did the 1968 Cohen Report have?
25.There are no controlled clinical trials in B.J. Palmer, DC's 1951 book,Chiropractic Clinical Controlled Research.
26. D.D. Palmer alternately accepted and rejected any similarity between the human body and a machine.
27. One of the most important developments in the training of clinician-scholars in Canada was:
28. The chiropractic profession's predominant initial reaction to the growing threat of basic science legislation during the 1920s and 1930s was:
29. In which of the following countries is NOT found a state-funded, university-based program of chiropractic education?
30. Among the three causes of subluxations proposed by D.D. Palmer was:
31. The matriarch of the Cleveland family of chiropractors was 1910 Palmer graduate:
32. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH) was dismissed as a co-defendant in the Wilk et al. case on the grounds that it had resisted the efforts of the AMA and co-conspirators to "contain and eliminate" the chiropractic profession through restraint of trade.
33. D.D. Palmer denied that nerves are pinched in the intervertebral foraminae, and argued that when the zygapophyseal joints subluxate, the intervertebral foraminae become larger.
MATCH COLUMN B TO COLUMN A (use items in Column B only once)
37. This European chiropractor was well known for research and teaching on the subject of motion palpation; who was s/he?
38. Which chiropractic college was formed by dissident Palmer faculty soon after the introduction of the neurocalometer?
39. Tom Morris was the attorney who won the acquittal of Shegataro Morikubo,DC in La Crosse, Wisconsin in 1907. Morris later became chief legal counsel to the Universal Chiropractors' Association and served as lieutenant governor of Wisconsin.
40. The legal basis for Dr. Shegataro Morikubo's acquittal of charges of unlicensed practice of in La Crosse, Wisconsin in 1907 was:
41. He had been a student of D.D. Palmer, but later discovered the "ligatite" and founded the profession of naprapathy; who was he?
42. He served as president of a chiropractic college from 1945 through 1982, and was responsible for the establishment of the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics; who was he?
43. According to George McAndrews, what "ethical" prohibition did the AMA place upon its members in order to "contain and eliminate" the chiropractic profession?
44. What was the compendium of research papers compiled by the faculty of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College in preparation for the 1975 NINCDS Conference?
45. The Universal Chiropractors' Association (UCA) was organized in 1906 by the same Palmer faculty dissidents who had founded the Universal Chiropractic College (UCC).
46. D.D. Palmer's use of the word "tone" is nearly synonymous with which term?
47. The purpose of the B.J. Palmer Clinic in Davenport was to conduct research that would prove B.J. Palmer's theories of upper cervical subluxation (HIO).
48. The Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics has the distinction of being:
49. Membership in the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC) costs $20/yr for students and includes a subscription to the AHC's journal, Chiropractic History.
Ernest G. Napolitano, DC, c1959, future president of New York Chiropractic College
50. Which of the following schools is the immediate predecessor of today's New York Chiropractic College?
If your interest in chirohistory has been stimulated, then consider joining the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC). Founded at Spears Hospital in Denver in 1980, the AHC is a nonprofit, membership organization whose goal is the discovery, dissemination and preservation of the saga of chiropractic. The AHC held its first annual Conference on Chiropractic History at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C. in 1980, and has held similar conferences each year since at various chiropractic colleges. The AHC's 2000 Conference on Chiropractic History will be held in San Antonio, Texas in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges, during March, 2000. Details about the upcoming conference can be obtained by contacting any CCE-accredited college.
The AHC publishes a scholarly journal, Chiropractic History, in which chiropractors and interested observers contribute their expertise to telling and interpreting the rich lore of the profession. The journal, which is indexed in the National Library of Medicine's Histline, is published twice per year. Chiropractic History is distributed to all members of the AHC as a membership benefit. Membership in the AHC can be obtained by sending your name, address and check for $50 ($20/year for students) to the AHC's executive director:
If you'd like to encourage historical scholarship and preservation within the chiropractic profession, then consider making a donation, large or small, to the historical fund of the National Institute of Chiropractic Research (NICR). The NICR is a nonprofit organization committed to conducting and supporting various types of research; in most cases, contributions are tax-deductible. The NICR historical fund supports the work of chiropractic historians and of centers for the preservation of historical documents. Preparation of this paper was supported by the NICR. Please make your check payable to:
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